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## Energy-Matter —Management Of Personal Energy And Matter Project – Tutorials #2!!!

**There are many ways to learn Biology in this “The Information Age.” This project is one way to learn! This project is focused on Energy and Matter as it relates to human life. In order to accomplish the project at a ****high level, much knowledge about energy, matter, and human metabolism, will be required. Learn from the following videos to have the knowledge and understanding base needed for the “ Management Of Personal Energy And Matter” project. Now that, is pretty important! Get on it and learn about it!**

*Click the following links to learn more about Energy-Matter in this project:*

**Kahn Academy Video: Productivity-Calories And Joules**

**Kahn Academy Video: Energy Defined**

**Kahn Academy Video: Energy Storage**

**Kahn Academy Video: Metabolism**

**Video: Converting Calories And Joules**

**Video: Converting Calories And Joules**

**Video: Calculating BMR**

**Tutorial: Calculating BMR and Energy Requirements**

# Harris–Benedict equation

**From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia**

**The Harris–Benedict equation (also called the Harris-Benedict principle) is a method used to estimate an individual’s basal metabolic rate(BMR) and daily kilocalorie requirements. The estimated BMR value is multiplied by a number that corresponds to the individual’s activity level. The resulting number is the recommended daily kilocalorie intake to maintain current body weight.**

**The Harris–Benedict equation may be used to assist weight loss — by reducing kilocalorie intake number below the estimated maintenance intake of the equation. ^{[citation needed]}**

**Contents**

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**Step 1 – Calculating the Harris–Benedict BMR[edit]**

**The original Harris–Benedict equations published in 1918 and 1919. ^{[1]}^{[2]}**

BMR calculation for men (metric) |
BMR = 66.5 + ( 13.75 x weight in kg ) + ( 5.003 x height in cm ) – ( 6.755 x age in years ) |

BMR calculation for men (imperial) |
BMR = 66 + ( 6.2 x weight in pounds ) + ( 12.7 x height in inches ) – ( 6.76 x age in years ) |

BMR calculation for women (metric) |
BMR = 655.1 + ( 9.563 x weight in kg ) + ( 1.850 x height in cm ) – ( 4.676 x age in years ) |

BMR calculation for women (imperial) |
BMR = 655.1 + ( 4.35 x weight in pounds ) + ( 4.7 x height in inches ) – ( 4.7 x age in years ) |

**The Harris–Benedict equations revised by Roza and Shizgal in 1984. ^{[3]}**

Men |
BMR = 88.362 + (13.397 x weight in kg) + (4.799 x height in cm) – (5.677 x age in years) |

Women |
BMR = 447.593 + (9.247 x weight in kg) + (3.098 x height in cm) – (4.330 x age in years) |

**The 95% confidence range for men is ±213.0 kcal/day, and ±201.0 kcal/day for women.**

**Step 2 – Determine Recommended Intake[edit]**

**The following table enables calculation of an individual’s recommended daily kilocalorie intake to maintain current weight. ^{[4]}**

Little to no exercise |
Daily kilocalories needed = BMR x 1.2 |

Light exercise (1–3 days per week) |
Daily kilocalories needed = BMR x 1.375 |

Moderate exercise (3–5 days per week) |
Daily kilocalories needed = BMR x 1.55 |

Heavy exercise (6–7 days per week) |
Daily kilocalories needed = BMR x 1.725 |

Very heavy exercise (twice per day, extra heavy workouts) |
Daily kilocalories needed = BMR x 1.9 |

**History[edit]**

**The Harris–Benedict equation sprang from a study by James Arthur Harris and Francis Gano Benedict, which was published in 1919 by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in the monograph A Biometric Study Of Basal Metabolism In Man. A 1984 revision improved its accuracy. Mifflin et al. published an equation more predictive for modern lifestyles in 1990. ^{[5]}^{[6]} Later work produced BMR estimators that accounted for lean body mass.**

**Tutorial: Calculating BMR and Energy Requirements**

# Body mass index

**From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia**

**The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass(weight) and height of an individual. The BMI is defined as the body mass divided by the square of the body height, and is universally expressed in units of kg/m ^{2}, resulting from mass in kilograms and height in metres. The BMI may also be determined using a table^{[note 2]} or chart which displays BMI as a function of mass and height using contour lines or colors for different BMI categories, and may use two different units of measurement.^{[note 3]}**

**The BMI is an attempt to quantify the amount of tissue mass (muscle, fat, and bone) in an individual, and then categorize that person as underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese based on that value. However, there is some debate about where on the BMI scale the dividing lines between categories should be placed.^{[2]} Commonly accepted BMI ranges are underweight: under 18.5, normal weight: 18.5 to 25, overweight: 25 to 30, obese: over 30.**

**Tutorial: Low Calorie Dieting**

**Very low calorie diet**

**From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia**

**Very low calorie diet (VLCD) is a diet with very or extremely low daily food energy consumption. It is defined as a diet of 800 kilocalories(3,300 kJ) per day or less. VLCDs are formulated, nutritionally complete, liquid meals containing 800 kilocalories or less per day. VLCDs also contain the recommended daily requirements for vitamins, minerals, trace elements, fatty acids and protein. Carbohydrate may be entirely absent, or substituted for a portion of the protein; this choice has important metabolic effects. ^{[1]} The VLCD products are usually a powder which is mixed with water or another low-food-energy liquid. The VLCD is prescribed on a case to case basis for rapid weight loss (about 1.5 to 2.5 kilograms or 3 to 5 pounds per week) in people with Body Mass Index of 30 and above. The health care provider can recommend the diet to a patient with a BMI between 27 and 30 if the medical complications the patient has due to being overweight present serious health risks.^{[2]} It results in 4% more weight loss over the short term as compared to control.^{[3]}**

**Contents**

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**Health effects[edit]**

**Health benefits[edit]**

**A 1997 study concludes that the short-term use of a VLCD is very effective in rapidly improving glycaemic control and promoting substantial weight loss in obese patients with Type 2 diabetes. ^{[4]} Moreover, a VLCD increases insulin sensitivity and reduces the substrate for gluconeogenesis. Thus VLCD treatment may improve glycaemic control more than calorie restriction alone. A VLCD is typically undertaken by an obese patient who wishes to lose a lot of weight quickly, as the risk to health that obesity presents is considered much greater than any risks of the diet itself, so long as it is undertaken with medical supervision.^{[5]}**

**Adverse effects[edit]**

**Studies have shown that in about one in four individuals following a VLCD for a few months, gallstones develop. However, these gallstones may be small enough to not cause discomfort, and often disappear when a normal eating pattern is resumed. ^{[6]}^{[7]}^{[8]} Gallstone formation is facilitated by the more concentrated bile fluid and reduced flow as a result of a VLCD. Another potential side effect is constipation (depending on the fiber content of the diet).^{[9]}^{[10]}^{[11]} Unmonitored VLCDs with insufficient macronutrient and mineral intake have the potential to cause sudden death via ventricular tachycardia. ^{[12]}^{[13]}**